Deformation zones, also known as crumple or crush zones, take out the kinetic energy of a crash in a controlled way. This is done through specifically designed areas of the vehicle that deform and crumple during an accident to absorb the impact.
Deformation zones are part of a range of built-in mechanisms that protect occupants of a car in case of a crash, the so-called passive safety systems, which also include airbags and seatbelts.
Passive safety technology is all about mitigating the consequences of an accident during and after impact, as from the moment that first contact is made. They do this by reducing the impact of an accident or the level of injury.